Authors: Eric Benhamou, Valentin Melot
Abstract: This paper revisits the Pearson Chi-squared independence test. After presenting the underlying theory with modern notations and showing new way of deriving the proof, we describe an innovative and intuitive graphical presentation of this test. This enables not only interpreting visually the test but also measuring how close or far we are from accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis of non independence
Submitted: August, 2018
arXiv:1808.04233 [pdf, ps] q-fin.ST
Authors: Eric Benhamou
Abstract: Sharpe ratio is widely used in asset management to compare and benchmark funds and asset managers. It computes the ratio of the excess return over the strategy standard deviation. However, the elements to compute the Sharpe ratio, namely, the expected returns and the volatilities are unknown numbers and need to be estimated statistically. This means that the Sharpe ratio used by funds is subject to be error prone because of statistical estimation error. Lo (2002), Mertens (2002) derive explicit expressions for the statistical distribution of the Sharpe ratio using standard asymptotic theory under several sets of assumptions (independent normally distributed - and identically distributed returns). In this paper, we provide ...
Submitted: August, 2018
arXiv:1807.09864 [pdf, ps] q-fin.PM
Authors: Eric Benhamou, Beatrice Guez
Abstract: We present a new methodology of computing incremental contribution for performance ratios for portfolio like Sharpe, Treynor, Calmar or Sterling ratios. Using Euler's homogeneous function theorem, we are able to decompose these performance ratios as a linear combination of individual modified performance ratios. This allows understanding the drivers of these performance ratios as well as deriving a condition for a new asset to provide incremental performance for the portfolio. We provide various numerical examples of this performance ratio decomposition.
Submitted: September, 2018
arXiv:1809.03774 [pdf, ps] q-fin.ST
Authors: Eric Benhamou,
Abstract: A basic result is that the sample variance for i.i.d. observations is an unbiased estimator of the variance of the underlying distribution (see for instance Casella and Berger (2002)). But what happens if the observations are neither independent nor identically distributed. What can we say? Can we in particular compute explicitly the first two moments of the sample mean and hence generalize formulae provided in Tukey (1957a), Tukey (1957b) for the first two moments of the sample variance? We also know that the sample mean and variance are independent if they are computed on an i.i.d. normal distribution. This is one of the underlying assumption to derive the Student distribution Student alias W. S. Gosset (1908). But does this result hold for any other underlying distribution? Can we still have independent sample mean and variance if the distribution is not normal? This paper precisely answers these questions and extends previous work of Cho, Cho, and Eltinge (2004). We are able to derive a general formula for the first two moments and variance of the sample variance under no specific assumption. We also provide a faster proof of a seminal result of Lukacs (1942) by using the log characteristic function of the unbiased sample variance estimator.
Submitted: September, 2018
arXiv:1809.04018 [pdf, ps] q-fin.ST
Authors: Eric Benhamou,
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the distribution of the t-statistic under the assumption of normal autoregressive distribution for the underlying discrete time process. This result generalizes the classical result of the traditional t-distribution where the underlying discrete time process follows an uncorrelated normal distribution. However, for AR(1), the underlying process is correlated. All traditional results break down and the resulting t-statistic is a new distribution that converges asymptotically to a normal. We give an explicit formula for this new distribution obtained as the ratio of two dependent distribution (a normal and the distribution of the norm of another independent normal distribution). We also provide a modified statistic that follows a non central t-distribution. Its derivation comes from finding an orthogonal basis for the the initial circulant Toeplitz covariance matrix. Our findings are consistent with the asymptotic distribution for the t-statistic derived for the asympotic case of large number of observations or zero correlation. This exact finding of this distribution has applications in multiple fields and in particular provides a way to derive the exact distribution of the Sharpe ratio under normal AR(1) assumptions.
Submitted: September, 2018
arXiv:1809.06668 [pdf, ps] q-fin.ST
Authors: Eric Benhamou,
Abstract: In this paper, we derive a valid Edgeworth expansions for the Bessel corrected empirical variance when data are generated by a strongly mixing process whose distribution can be arbitrarily. The constraint of strongly mixing process makes the problem not easy. Indeed, even for a strongly mixing normal process, the distribution is unknown. Here, we do not assume any other assumption than a sufficiently fast decrease of the underlying distribution to make the Edgeworth expansion convergent. This results can obviously apply to strongly mixing normal process and provide an alternative to the work of Moschopoulos (1985) and Mathai (1982).
Submitted: October, 2018
arXiv:1810.01768 [pdf, ps] math.PR
Authors: Eric Benhamou, Beatrice Guez, Nicolas Paris
Abstract: In this paper, we present three remarkable properties of the normal distribution: first that if two independent variables's sum is normally distributed, then each random variable follows a normal distribution (which is referred to as the Levy Cramer theorem), second a variation of the Levy Cramer theorem that states that if two independent symmetric random variables with finite variance have their sum and their difference independent, then each random variable follows a standard normal distribution, and third that the normal distribution is characterized by the fact that it is the only distribution for which the sample mean and variance are independent (which is a central property for deriving the Student distribution and referred as the Geary theorem). The novelty of this paper is to provide new, quicker or self contained proofs of theses theorems.
Submitted: October, 2018